There are many opinions about the first civilization that could measure time; some believe that Indians, others say Babylonians, Greeks, or Egyptians. But we know that 5000 to 6000 years ago, The great civilizations of Central Asia and North Africa began to build clocks to complete their calendars and measure time.
The clock is one of the oldest human inventions that eliminates the need for continuous measurement of shorter time intervals than natural units, i.e.: (day, month, and year). A watch is a device for measuring, showing, and keeping time.
There are various theories about the origin of the modern word watch: The word "watch" is said to be derived from the Old English word "woecce."
There are various theories about the origin of the word watch today: It is said that the word "watch" is derived from the Old English word "woecce" which means "guardian," because city guards used it to keep track of time changes in post time.
Another view is that the term originated with seventeenth-century sailors, who used it to change their ship clocks.
The word "clock" is derived from the local languages (Dutch, French, and Latin) words "Clocca" and Clagan, which mean "alarm." Clockmakers and other experts recognize the term clock as the meaning of a device with a mechanism for announcing time intervals audibly, which expresses time intervals by playing a bell, musical instruments, or a bell.
In the old tradition, any device used to express time intervals but with no sound was known as a chronograph.
In general usage today, a "clock" refers to any device for measuring and displaying time, and the fact that watches are portable today distinguishes them from wall clocks.
Elizabeth I of England received a watch from Robert Duddle in 1571, known as the first full-length watch. The oldest surviving wristwatch (known as a wristwatch or bracelet watch) was made in 1806 and given to Joséphine de Beauharnais (Napoleon's first wife). Women used wristwatches almost exclusively from the beginning, while men wore pocket watches until the early twentieth century.
The first wristwatches were widely recognized and used by military men in the late 19th century when the importance of coordinating maneuvers during the war was revealed. Garstin London patented the Watch Wristlet in 1893, but production probably reached the 1880s.
Clock (watch) History
The sun indicator shows the hours of the day using sunlight. Widely used in antiquity, the sundial can accurately measure and display local time if properly constructed. This type of watch was also used until modern times to monitor the performance of other kinds of new generation watches. One of the disadvantages of this old clock is its scientific limitations and the fact that it needs the sun to shine, and it did not work all night, which encouraged the use of other methods to measure time.
Candlesticks and firewood, which had an approximately predictable burning rate, were also used to estimate time passage. A candle clock is a narrow candle with a marked case (usually marked with numbers) that indicates the passage of time by burning the candle. This kind of clock is no longer used today. Candle clocks have been an effective way to measure time indoors. With this clock, time could be measured even during nights ad cloudy days.
An hourglass measures several minutes or an hour and has two glass bubbles connected vertically. The cavity between the two allows the material to flow from the top bubble to the bottom. When the top bubble is empty, it can be reversed again to measure time. In an hourglass, the velocity of sand passing through a small hole is constant, indicating the passage of a predetermined contract time.
Water clocks, also known as "Clepsydrrae," are associated with the sun and are probably the oldest timepieces. Flowing water in a bowl-shaped container is one of the simplest water clocks in Babylon and Egypt around 16 centuries BC. Elsewhere in the world, including India and China, there is evidence that they had water clocks, but some writers date them to less than 400 BC.
In the Greek and Roman civilizations, to advance water clocks, designs were made, including intricate gears attached to automatic imaginary machines. Still, these designs were effective in improving the accuracy of watches.
These advances were achieved through Byzantine and Islamic times, which eventually found their way to Europe.
The Chinese developed their water clocks in 725 AD, spreading their ideas to Korea and Japan.
Originally, water clocks were used in ancient societies, mainly in astronomy. Polarity indicators calibrated these watches, and while their accuracy did not match the accuracy of modern counters, the watches were one of the most common and accurate devices used for a thousand years until pendulum clocks replaced them in the 17th century Europe which were more accurate.
Pendulum clock (pendulum clock)
It is a clock that uses a pendulum, an oscillating weight that is the time-keeping element in this type of clock. The pendulum clock has been the most accurate in the world since its invention in 1656 by Christine Huygens until the 1930s.
The pendulum clock must be in a fixed position. Any movement or acceleration will affect the speed of the pendulum. Due to these devices' inaccuracy, another mechanism had to be used for portable counters. Currently, these types of watches are kept for decoration or as antiques.
The Jesuits significantly contributed to the development of pendulum clocks in the 17th and 18th centuries.
wrist watch :
The first watch was made in 1524 in Germany by Peter Henlin. Other watches appeared in 1548, and after 1575 most watches were produced in Switzerland and England. At that time, the main problem with watches was the carrying mechanism. Typically, the weight of watches made them portable, but it was a period of progress and innovation. The first portable watches were made of steel; this type has not been defective since the brass alloy.
Form watches in the 1600s with molds that became popular in the form of animals and objects.
Greenwich Mean Time:
In 1884 Greenwich, England, was named the Zero Degree Meridian, which the world accepted as the starting point of the world's time position.
Why do the clock hands rotate clockwise?
The sundial was one of the first clocks used by humans in the true sense of the word; That is, instead of measuring a time interval such as an hourglass or a water clock, it could attribute a relatively absolute time to each moment. In this sense, it could be considered the father of today's timepieces.
This watch was first invented and used in the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, which was home to most ancient civilizations. In these places, the sun always comes from the south; therefore, as it moves east to west, the shadow of an indicator during the day travels clockwise. This seems to be the reason for choosing the direction we now call clockwise, the standard direction of clockwise movement. In fact, if human civilizations had made history in the Southern Hemisphere, the hands would probably be turning in the opposite direction.